With funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ICMA conducted the first-ever national study on 311 and related customer service technology used by local governments in the United States. The study explored how such centralized systems can make it easier and simpler for residents to connect to their local government and thereby improve the local government-citizen relationship. The study had three major components: (1) a national survey of local governments; (2) a series of in-depth case studies of communities with 311 or citizen relationship management (CRM) systems; and (3) a resource list of literature available for researching how to implement a centralized customer service system. This is the final report.