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Re-Imagining Leadership

Career Compass No. 63: Legacy: Don’t Leave It—Live It!

Everyone leaves a legacy. What kind of legacy do you want to create each and every day?

Career Compass No. 61: Leadership Is the Art of Conversation

I’m a human resources manager in a large city organization. Since I would like to enhance my leadership capabilities, I asked the HR director if I could lead a redesign of our recruitment process. Given my extensive experience and expertise in recruitment, she agreed. Currently, we have over 72 positions vacant city-wide. It takes approximately five to six months, beginning to end, to fill a vacancy. In competing for talent, my city government is losing opportunities to other organizations because early and mid-career professionals won’t wait around for us to complete our cumbersome process. To make matters worse, our organization struggles to meet the goals set by the city council and city manager with this continuing high level of vacancies. I’ve had many discussions with department heads and hiring managers in all the departments but there is no buy-in. Everyone wants to maintain in one way or another what they are used to doing. Even my own HR recruitment staff people do not feel any sense of urgency.I have drafted a new streamlined recruitment process and have shared my proposal with all the key players but they all seem to have a different concern or problem. They just don’t seem to get it.Everyone wants to hire talent quicker but no one seems motivated to significantly change the process. How do I get buy-in to the streamlined process? Can you suggest how I better approach this challenge?Congratulations on taking on this leadership challenge. I sense that you are committed to making a positive difference for your organization.The problem is that you seek “buy-in.” You have a plan to change things (in your mind for the better) and you want to sell it to others. Seeking buy-in is fundamentally manipulative, and people can immediately sense it, and, therefore, they resist your efforts.Instead of trying to persuade people, you need to engage colleagues in HR and in other departments in authentic conversations.What are authentic conversations?Authentic conversations are those conversations in which you are truly open to the conversation and wherever it may lead. In my experience, authentic conversations are not the same as the usual business discussions. Authentic conversations are those in which you are trying to genuinely learn from the other person, not teach or persuade.Why does leadership require authentic conversations?You are facing an adaptive (not a technical) challenge. You may think that you are addressing a technical challenge with an evident technical solution, and people just “don’t get it.” However, in reality, you are facing an adaptive challenge because all the stakeholders have their own preferred solutions and can easily block your technical solution. Your technical expertise and any formal management authority are insufficient to carry the day.As opposed to technical problems, adaptive challenges are those problems where there are no right or wrong answers. Stakeholder groups all have different interests and concerns and they can each “veto” your plan. Adaptive challenges require leadership, not management.You lead by starting conversations, convening people, focusing on shared purpose, responding to the concerns and fears, solving problems together, and mobilizing action. Your job as a leader is to get to “yes” when everyone can say “no.”What are the benefits of authentic conversations?Authentic conversations have great value. They can help the leader:Probe for critical information and identify the critical interests, hopes, fears and concerns of stakeholders.Create consensus about the problem.Promote empathy on the part of those engaged in conversation.Create relationships and connections (people won’t tend to follow you if they do not feel connected to you).Generate commitment and action.Demonstrate that you care.Create the opportunity to build trust.What are the key ingredients to authentic conversations?To engage others in authentic conversations, a leader needs to. . .1. Demonstrate curiosity One must enter the conversation with a curious or inquiring mind. You want to understand the person’s situation, his or her interests, and concerns. It is not about selling your solution.The Buddhists say that one must avoid an “expert’s mind.” An expert’s mind is a “full” and thus a closed mind. There is no room in an expert’s mind for new views and approaches. Therefore, the Buddhists suggest that one approaches a difficult challenge with a “beginner’s mind.” A beginner’s mind is an empty mind and thus open to different approaches.Authentic conversations will help the leader become a “learn-it-all” (as opposed to a “know-it-all”).2. Seek different kinds of data Instead of seeking only technical information, you must probe for other kinds of data, including hopes, fears, concerns and problems, values, and perspectives.3. Ask powerful questions To inquire and get the right kind of data, the leader must come prepared to ask powerful, open-ended questions, such as:What are your current frustrations with the city’s recruitment and hiring processes?Can you share with me some specific examples or experiences about recruiting and hiring that frustrated you or your department staff?If we could hire talented employees in a quicker fashion, how would that support your department efforts?Given your needs, what would an effective recruitment process look like?As the city revises its recruitment process, what are your fears or concerns? What is behind your fear or concern? (Listen for things they may be protecting, which are important to them.)What happens if we do nothing?How might we transform the process to meet your needs?Who might know more about this challenge in your department?4. Actively listenActive listening requires that you ask open-ended questions, listen intently, avoid distractions (including conversations going on in your head), ask probing follow-up questions, and then summarize and paraphrase what you heard. By acknowledging the other person’s interests, hopes, values, and concerns, you demonstrate that you truly “heard” the person.Listen more than you talk. Typically, a good conversationalist listens twice as much as he or she talks.Furthermore, listen deeply. Don’t immediately seek to rebut (“yes, but”). Instead, say “tell me more.”5. Demonstrate empathy By acknowledging the experiences of others and their hopes and fears going forward, you demonstrate empathy. Empathy is the ability to understand and share the experiences and feelings of others from their perspective, not your own.By putting yourself in the place of others, you create empathy, which in turn promotes relationship and connection.6. Reflect on what you heardAll leadership requires reflection. You need to spend some time reflecting and considering the information that your conversations have generated. Specifically, you must struggle to understand the source of any resistance. Is it about certain technical aspects of the redesign? Is it about autonomy or authority? Do people need more time to digest any possible changes? Are there perhaps other ideas or suggestions that you should consider?You can reflect by reviewing your notes from the conversations or by keeping a log or journal. Some people like to reflect alone at a café or during walks. I like to reflect and condense information by talking to others (perhaps a trusted colleague, a spouse or partner, or coach).7. Be willing to change your perspective Demonstrate that the conversation mattered. As a leader, you must show in tangible ways that the conversation influenced your thinking and the proposal. Otherwise, the conversation is not “authentic;” it is merely talk. To influence others, you must let them influence you. And you must provide feedback to the person about how the conversation changed your perspective or idea.How does one respond to reluctance or resistance?Even if you do not agree, you never want to minimize concerns or problems identified by HR staff or department managers. As Dan Rockwell points out in his Leadership Freak blog “How To Cuddle Up with ‘No’ and Win with Doom and Gloomers” (Oct 17, 2017), when you trivialize the concerns of others, you are seen as closed and stubborn.So, how does a leader legitimately deal with the problems and concerns generated in conversation with others? First, as suggested above, you need to acknowledge the problems expressed during the initial conversation.Second, don’t try to immediately respond in the first conversation to all the fears, problems, and/or concerns identified by the other person. As suggested by Sally Blount and Shana Carroll in an hbr.org blog piece (May 16, 2017), “Overcome Resistance to Change with Two Conversations,” the leader needs to engage an important stakeholder in at least two conversations, if not more. In the second conversation, you aim to demonstrate that you heard the concerns of the person. Based on the first conversation, you outline in the second conversation what will be different, or not, in your approach and explain why. You want the other person to feel that their issues have genuinely shaped your thinking about the redesign.According to Blount and Carroll, the time between the two conversations is important. They recommend that you get back together for a second or subsequent conversation in two to seven days. If you respond too quickly, either in the initial conversation or a day later, the stakeholder may not feel that you have fully considered their concerns or suggestions. If you wait longer than seven days, they may feel forgotten and dismissed.During the subsequent conversations, you can ask some additional questions. For example, how might we test out our ideas? What might a pilot program or beta-test look like? Who needs to be involved? What would success look like? What’s the next step that doesn’t require much commitment? (See Dan Rockwell, Leadership Freak blog, Oct 17, 2017.)If you don’t integrate the interests of others and legitimately respond to their concerns, they will block you. While you cannot solve every problem, or make every concern go away, you do need to get their “fingerprints” on the solution so it becomes their solution. As you incorporate the ideas of others and minimize their problems, the solution tends to become more robust and elegant.As American military strategy suggests, be clear about purpose and direction, yet flexible about how to achieve it.What are other tips to promote authentic conversations?Here are some other ideas on how to promote authenticity in your crucial conversations.1. Start with the “why”We often jump into discussions by focusing on the “what” (streamline the recruitment process) and the “how” (cut out steps, change who does what). Instead we must first focus on the “why” for redesigning the recruitment process, such as:Finding the best talent for the organization.Filling vacancies quicker so the organization can meet its goals.Being more competitive for talent vis-a-vis other public, private, and nonprofit organizations.People will be more open to the “what” and “how” if they are aligned with the “why.” (See Simon Sinek’s TED Talk, “How Great Leaders Inspire Action.”)2. Frame the issue differently for different stakeholdersSo that different stakeholders are open to considering potential solutions, you need to frame the issue given their interests. Just as a blue frame brings out the blue in a painting, the correct frame helps someone consider an idea or viable solutions based on their values or interests.Therefore, if we want a department director to consider different approaches for redesigning the recruitment and hiring process, you may ask “How does a new process help you keep your authority to hire the best talent in the quickest fashion?” For HR staff, you might ask, “How do we in HR ensure that the city selects talent based on merit in an impartial yet quicker fashion?”By framing the issue differently for different groups, you are not attempting to manipulate people. You are merely trying to get them to consider an opportunity.3. Minimize distractionsIf you are going to have a meaningful and constructive conversation with someone, you need to be prepared, be present in the moment, make eye contact, and minimize any distractions. In addition to scheduling ample time to ask questions and explore issues, you might want to talk sitting next to each other without a desk or table separating you, put your smart phone away, or better yet, meet at a café or take a walk together.4. Show patienceEngaging others in multiple conversations takes time. You must show some patience if you are getting people aligned on purpose and intent, identifying themes from all your conversations, and then modifying your proposal to incorporate the interests and concerns of others. At that point, you can pick up speed because you have addressed the significant issues that people have.Patience and urgency can co-exist. Go slow to go fast. (See Career Compass No. 56: “The Paradoxes of Leadership”.)5. Ask people to share experiences and storiesAs you engage others in conversation, ask them to share personal experiences with respect to the recruitment and hiring process. These vignettes or stories are powerful ways to illuminate issues and discern themes. Plus, people typically love to talk about their own experiences and tell stories.Later in the process, you can share these stories with decision-makers and other stakeholders. You certainly need technical data and facts (for instance, the average number of vacancies at any given time city-wide, the time a typical recruitment takes from beginning to end, the percent of applicants who are no longer available by the time interviews are conducted). However, data is necessary but completely insufficient. Stories make the data come alive and often compel people to act. (See Career Compass No. 50: “Story-Telling—A Powerful Way to Lead and Communicate”.)Why should leaders resist the urge to first call a meeting?When facing an adaptive challenge in local government, oftentimes our first inclination as leaders is to call a meeting of internal or external stakeholders. Why should we resist this urge?When addressing an adaptive challenge, each stakeholder group has its own preferred solution or approach. Therefore, if you begin the process by organizing a meeting of stakeholders, you might be just exacerbating conflict. A meeting might harden the differences in values and approaches, and everyone then takes a position for or against the approach.Consequently, you must start with one-one-conversations during which you probe for values, interest, hopes, fears, and concerns. Once you respond in tangible ways to the issues and themes that emerge from your initial conversations, you can call a meeting and identify the purpose and “why” that you all share. You can then explore where there is alignment on key elements of the redesign and what problems remain to be addressed by the group.How does conversation contribute to leadership?If you listen intently, ask questions, consider other viewpoints, and modify your solution or approach based on the conversation, you are showing respect for the other person and the reality that he or she experiences. You are also creating trust, which is the critical currency for any leader. People tend to follow leaders who build relationship and connection. It is through relationships that leaders produce results.Creating a Culture of ConversationThe poet David Whyte defines leadership as the art of conversation. Leaders ask themselves:With whom do I need to have a conversation?What do I want the content of the conversation to be?What do I need to learn?Am I willing to revise my perspectives based on the conversation?In authentic conversation, you don’t have to be right. Remember, adaptive challenges have no right or wrong answers.As the actor Alan Alda suggests, listening and engaging in authentic conversations involves the “willingness to let the other person change you.”If you lead by engaging others in conversation, you are modeling behavior and encouraging others to listen, consider other perspectives, and change the world together for the common good. Over time, you are helping your organization create a culture of conversation and positive change.Sponsored by the ICMA Coaching Program, Career Compass is a monthly column from ICMA focused on career issues for local government professional staff. Dr. Frank Benest is ICMA's liaison for Next Generation Initiatives and resides in Palo Alto, California. If you have a career question you would like addressed in a future Career Compass, e-mail careers@icma.org or contact Frank directly at frank@frankbenest.com. Read past columns at icma.org/careercompass.

Career Compass No. 60: I Don't Like My Mid-Manager Job!

I’m a mid-manager supervising an engineering/capital projects group. I was promoted into this role two years ago. While I am good at overseeing the work plan, pushing out the work, and holding people accountable, I am not enjoying the position.Our capital projects take a long time to complete. When we are in the midst of one effort or another, my group gets called upon to take on another “priority” project or respond to some demand or challenge from a higher-up. For my team and me, it’s endless and, therefore, difficult to stay motivated.In addition, there’s a lot of change happening in our organization with respect to new priorities, systems, and ways of doing things. Top management is always leaning on mid-managers to communicate the change and make it happen.I always seem to be in the middle, with my public works director making constant demands and our group members demanding support and resources. It’s difficult to be caught in the middle. Moreover, I don’t feel that the role of mid-manager gets much respect from top management. And I don’t sense that those below me fully appreciate the role.To make matters worse, I feel lonely at work. I have a family that I cherish but I spend most of my waking hours on the job. I used to be one of the team members but now that I’m a manager I have no close social relationships with those in my group. I try to provide support but I don’t get any.Can you help me figure this out?You feel caught in what has been called the “middle-manager vise.” Top management is making demands on you, and your direct reports are making demands on you. Even though you ensure that your group gets the work done, it doesn’t seem fulfilling and you don’t feel much support.In some ways, the role of mid-manager has changed. It is true that the IT revolution now allows employees to communicate with anyone throughout the organization or outside the organization. Mid-managers are no longer gate-keepers of critical data or financials or general “intelligence,” all of which are now available to all.However, in my view, mid-managers are more important than ever. With more and more uncertainty and disruption, good mid-managers play a critical role in engaging employees and making positive change happen. More on this role below.Here are my suggestions to become more self-fulfilled in your position.1. Embrace the roleEach of us must determine what kind of work provides meaning and satisfaction. You might decide that management is not for you since the work may not feel sufficiently engaging or joyful.I personally find the role of manager and leader to be energizing and full of purpose. Why? Because, amidst all the resource constraints and competing demands, a manager serves the team and helps the team make a difference in organizational or community life. Service to others has enriched my life. (See Career Compass No. 41: The Post-Heroic Leader.)Certainly, serving as mid-manager is one of the toughest roles in local government and is much more complicated than pushing out the work and responding to all the demands from the top and the bottom. In uncertain and volatile times, the governing board, chief executive, and key stakeholders in the community are all making demands. Successful change occurs (or does not occur) in the middle of the organization.The governing board and top management might make pronouncements about new internal or external initiatives, but that doesn’t make them happen. Real change for the better requires that active and effective mid-managersUnderstand the change.Communicate the compelling rationale (the “why”) for the change.Engage employees in shaping the change and making adjustments.Ensure that progress is made.Yes, top management needs to envision a better future. However, it’s all about the effectiveness of mid-managers to rally people around the positive change and make it happen in the trenches. Mid-managers are the key levers of change.You must also understand your role as a boundary-crosser. Any initiative of significance involving your group requires that you exit your silo and cross boundaries. For instance, a community center improvement project requires that you engage the Parks and Recreation Department personnel, budget, and utility staff, along with key user groups in order to successfully complete the project. When you cross a boundary, you must start conversations, convene internal and external stakeholders, facilitate problem-solving, and mobilize action—all in an environment where anyone might be able to block or veto your efforts forward.Leading by crossing boundaries is a difficult yet stimulating role for mid-managers. Therefore, I urge you to understand that your role as a mid-manager is critical and embrace it.2. Explore the meaning of the workYes, it often feels to you and your group that the work never ends. There is always more work.I suggest that you and your team take the time and discuss the meaning behind the work. What is the meaning behind an upgrade to the corporate maintenance yard? What will a new library mean to the community? What will the replacement of sewer lines mean for public safety and health?Are you sharing stories from those benefitting from your capital projects? Are you occasionally inviting internal or external users or customers to your group meetings to discuss the difference that your team is making. Stories are the most powerful way to communicate meaning (see Career Compass No. 50: Storytelling—A Powerful Way to Lead and Communicate).Meaning is the great motivator and makes the work worthwhile.3. Focus on progressIt is easy for you and your group to get overwhelmed with a large project or effort that continues over several years. Consequently, you must help yourself and your team members focus on progress. In their book The Progress Principle, Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer suggest that people will stay motivated if they see distinct progress along the way.4. CelebrateAs you and your group successfully meet milestones or complete projects, you must help the team celebrate. We in local government are terrible at celebrating success. Upon completing one project, we immediately move to the next effort. Take a time-out, bring some coffee and bagels to a staff meeting, congratulate everyone, help everyone savor success, and celebrate the team. I call this “purposeful partying”—party with a purpose.5. Advocate upWhile top management makes demands on you and your group, it is important and appropriate for you to represent the needs of your team and “advocate up.” Just as you make demands of direct reports in order to be responsive to top management, you must also make demands of senior managers (for example, requesting that top management provide more resources or prioritize issues).Your role is to respectfully ask of department heads and other top managementWhat is the vision or direction?Where does this issue fall in terms of our other organizational priorities?Given the “messiness” that is inherent in this new initiative, how realistic is the timeline ?This is what I’m willing to do. What are you willing to do?This is what I think. What do you think?It might be difficult at first to “talk truth to power,” however, assuming you are respectful yet forthright, you will gain respect in turn. Moreover, it is self-fulfilling knowing that you support your group and represent their valid needs and interests. Finally, it is imperative that you provide strategic input to any new initiative since you operate in the real-world trenches.As levers of change, effective mid-managers influence those above as well as those below in the organizational hierarchy (see Behnan Tabrizi, “New Research—What Sets Effective Middle Managers Apart", hbr.org, May 8, 2013).6. Reconceptualize your roleMid-managers must ask themselves if they are doing the right work. Like you, many mid-managers see their primary responsibility as “pushing out the work” and “overseeing staff” (a nice way of saying “making sure there are no screw-ups”). Certainly, mid-managers do need to ensure that work gets done and people are accountable for their assignments. However, let me suggest that mid-managers have an equally important role as teachers, coaches, and talent developers (see Career Compass No. 46: Leading By Letting Go).As you engage your direct reports in new projects, are you providing them with opportunities to stretch and grow? Within certain guiderails, are you providing autonomy in how the works is done? As a manager, are you a “multiplier” or “diminisher”? (see Liz Wiseman, Multipliers—How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter). Good leaders ask how every problem can be solved in a way that develops other people’s capacity to handle the problem.The roles of coach, talent developer, and cheerleader are energizing. You create legacy through new community improvement projects. However, you create a different kind of legacy by developing talent. I believe that the primary role of leaders is to grow more leaders.7. Get coachingServing as an effective mid-manager is difficult but it can be a very fulfilling job, or better yet, a calling.To get better in your role, get some formal or informal coaching. If your organization or ICMA state association has a formal 1-to-1 coaching program, secure a coach. Or simply go to icma.org/coachconnect and identify a coach. Or, just ask a respected manager (inside or outside your organization) to go for coffee or lunch and informally pick their brain.Coaches can help usBetter engage staff.Influence others.Advocate up.Cross boundaries and collaborate without any authority.Coach and guide others.8. Address your lonelinessSometimes our management jobs are fairly lonely. As Vivek Murthy states in Harvard Business Review paper “Work and the Loneliness Epidemic” (hbr.org, September 2017), we face an epidemic of loneliness in our jobs. Experiencing loneliness not only makes us less productive, it has negative emotional and physical health consequences (for example, greater risk of cardiovascular disease, dementia, depression, and anxiety, and a reduction in life expectancy).As the Gallup research suggests, those who feel isolated and do not experience social support are less engaged and energized and do not perform well. (See Career Compass No. 37: Engaging Employees for Success.) To overcome loneliness, I encourage you to seek out other mid-managers in your department or other departments or in other agencies. Over coffee, share your joys and challenges, as well as some of your personal lives, such as family and leisure pursuits. We don’t often share the joys of our management and leadership roles. It also helps to know that you face similar challenges. It’s important to get peer support and advice.To connect on a personal as well as professional level with your staff, share some vulnerability. Talk about a difficult project or situation and admit that you do not know how to proceed and that you need their assistance. Only strong leaders can share their vulnerability. Staff will become more engaged if they connect with you and vice versa. While some seasoned managers recommend that it is not a good idea to have friends whom you supervise, I don’t agree. This notion that “it is lonely at the top” is true only if you isolate yourself. When I was a department head and then city manager, I went to coffee, shared meals, and went out for drinks after work with colleagues whom I supervised. Some continue to be lifelong friends. I believe that you can have direct reports who are friends and still make the occasional tough decision that affects them. Why be lonely?In order to enhance social relationships, you might want to try out a few techniques or activities, such as“Take five”—Start each staff meeting with team members sharing something that happened in their non-work lives.“The inside scoop”—At the beginning of a monthly staff meeting, ask team members to share something about themselves with photos.Identify people’s personal or leisure pursuits and inquire about them; share with others who might be interested in your personal hobbies or pursuits.Make a point of walking around and asking people about their day or the past weekend, or how their children are doing; share your day.Demonstrate some small acts of kindness (for example, writing a note or hugging someone when your colleague had to put his dog down).If you feel uncomfortable sharing yourself with others at work, seek friendships with colleagues in other agencies and/or outside of your professional life. The key is to consciously and proactively reach out and make connections. There is no reason to be lonely.The Joys of Mid-ManagementThere are challenges but many potential joys in your role as a mid-manager:Serving the team.Leveraging change for the good of the organization and/or community.Growing more leaders.Forming strong connections in the team.Doing meaningful work together in service to others.Mid-managers matter greatly. Embrace the role and be the best you can be.Sponsored by the ICMA Coaching Program, Career Compass is a monthly column from ICMA focused on career issues for local government professional staff. Dr. Frank Benest is ICMA's liaison for Next Generation Initiatives and resides in Palo Alto, California. If you have a career question you would like addressed in a future Career Compass, e-mail careers@icma.org or contact Frank directly at frank@frankbenest.com. Read past columns at icma.org/careercompass.

Career Compass No. 58: Overcoming Deep-Seated Fears

We cannot fulfill our leadership role if we allow fears to get in the way.

Coaching and Networking

Career Compass No. 48: How Do I Benefit From a Coach?

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest explains why you need a coach, how to get one, and what they can do for you.

Career Compass No. 45: City Managers Need Coaches Too

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest reminds us that everyone can benefit from a coach.

Career Compass No. 30: Building a Powerful Network

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest shows us that a solid network can change not only your career but your life.

Career Compass No. 32: The Power of Vulnerability

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest shows us how opening up can move us forward.

Workplace Culture

Career Compass No. 64: Ten Ideas to Become a Talent Magnet

Attract top early-career talent and retain it.

Career Compass No. 51: Building a World Class Culture

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Frank Benest suggests if you want to improve workplace performance, then you need to the improve culture.

Career Compass No. 57: Leading by Living Your Values

Values should guide our decisions and actions, especially in times of uncertainty and change.

Career Compass No. 53: How Do I Hold People Accountable?

In this issue, Dr. Frank Benest explains how accountability is an ongoing conversation in the relationship between manager employee or staff team.

Getting the Job

Career Compass No. 59: Perform the Job Before You Get It

How do you maximize the likelihood of getting promoted?

Career Compass No. 55: I'm Not Ready!

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Frank Benest provides valuable suggestions on gaining the confidence to land an executive management position.

Career Compass No. 33: Making the Move Up and Out—What’s the Fit?

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest shows us when a bird's wings are strong enough for leaving the nest.

Career Compass No. 26: The Art of the Interview

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Benest offers his sage advice on being your best in the job interview.

Advancing Your Career

Career Compass No. 62: “How Do I Get a Better Title?”

You need to take charge of your career and advocate for yourself. If you don’t promote your value, who will?

Career Compass No. 54: How Do I Position Myself for Advancement

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Frank Benest provides valuable suggestions on moving up in your organization when the path to advancement is not clear.

Career Compass No. 52: Recasting My Rep

In this issue of Career Compass, Dr. Frank Benest presents a road map for redefining yourself in the minds of others.

Career Compass No. 50: Storytelling--A Powerful Way to Lead and Communicate

I’m a traffic engineer in a small midwestern city. I just had a difficult experience presenting a mobility safety plan to my city council. I did a lot of research on best practices to better protect pedestrians and bicyclists along a fairly busy street, while still maintaining reasonable traffic flow. As part of my report, I presented traffic count, accident data, and made a set of well-balanced recommendations based on the information. The council members seemed to show support for my recommendations until the public comment portion of the hearing, when a mother with her son beside her told the council about their experience riding bicycles to his school. She stated that the recommendations did not go far enough and demanded action well beyond what the technical data supported. She blew my presentation out of the water, and the council voted to do what she wanted. It was very frustrating to see policy-makers ignore our technical recommendations. How do I better communicate our recommendations in the future?   I understand your frustration. As a long-time local government manager, I too have tried to communicate and influence public policy decisions based on sound technical research, best practices, and good staff work. Yet I often failed when a little old lady (or in your case a mother and child) has a personal experience or story that trumps my technical data. Over time, I learned that I had to enhance my leadership and communication skills through story-telling. Why Stories? We professionals often feel that stories are “fluff.” In fact, stories are the most powerful way to communicate. Data becomes less important when we are overwhelmed with data. Stories are memorable and make the data “stick.” In research conducted by Stanford University, people retain only 5-10% of the information and message with statistics alone. With data and anecdotes (“stories”), people retain 65-70%. In addition to helping people retain the message, stories also help leaders connect with their audience. Leadership is all about connection. Most importantly, stories help us win hearts as well as minds. As opposed to data alone, stories can inspire us to act. In short, data is necessary but completely insufficient. In making recommendations to senior management or to your governing board, you certainly need data or you will get thrown out of the room. However, to carry the day, you need a narrative to reinforce the data. Brené Brown defined stories as “data with a soul.” (See Brené Brown’s TED.com talk “The Power of Vulnerability.”) What is an appropriate story? A good story that adds value to the data must be a “true” story. An appropriate story must be relevant to the issue and aligned with the data and recommendations. Again, a good story makes the data come alive. What are the key elements of a good story? Good stories often have some typical elements: The stories are personal with a strong point of view. People can relate to the protagonist or situation. The narrative involves a big problem, failure, or misfortune. The audience develops “rooting interest” in the main character. The story builds to a conclusion. The experience includes lessons to be learned. There’s a “call to action.” What simple story could you use? To enhance your safety presentation, you could share a personal experience (which is a “story”). For example, you could start your presentation by briefly relating how you as a resident drive everyday on this well-traveled street from your home to work at city hall. You also often walk this route to the downtown district for lunch. You could relate that due to traffic speeds you feel uncomfortable crossing the street as a pedestrian even though the crosswalks are marked. You can conclude your personal experience by stating that the street must work and be safe for all users. You could emphasize that staff have tried to develop a set of well-balanced recommendations based on the experiences of other cities, data gathered by the city related to the functioning of the street, and input from several community meetings. While your presentation may include photos of several traffic-calming measures, you might use a prop to enhance the narrative. For instance, you could hold up one of the bright flags that you recommend pedestrians use as a safety measure in crossing the street. This is a simple yet effective story. It is aligned with data and underscores the need for the proposed safety plan that works for all. It also attaches a human face (yours) to the proposal and humanizes you. What is the structure of a good story? A classic story has three acts: Act one introduces the main character facing a challenge or some obstacles.  Act two involves some action that is taken by the protagonist or someone else.  Act three features a “happy” conclusion, a triumph over adversity, or some ending with an important lesson for us all. In your story to the council, you are introduced in act one. In act two, you encounter problems using the street. In act three, you conclude that the challenges will be addressed by your recommendations. When should you use a story or narrative? Always or often. As a leader and communicator, you must serve as a “bard,” making issues come alive and inspiring action. You can tie stories to efforts Improving customer service. Promoting an organizational culture of excellence. Developing partnerships with business, neighborhood or school groups. Supporting the senior citizen population. Promoting a new technology. Overcoming a major organizational or community challenge. Who should tell the story? You as the leader can tell the story. Or, you can invite several users or partners to share their experiences as a way to make the data come alive. In terms of the public hearing regarding the safety plan, you could have involved in your presentation someone from the local bicycle coalition or the PTA to share their experiences. These narratives could have replaced your story or augmented it. How can you improve your story-telling? Here are ten tips to enhance your story-telling skills: Search for stories. Be on the look-out for personal experiences that can become a story. This requires self-reflection and that you know and have tried to understand your own personal history. Critique the stories of others. Be aware of the stories told by others and critique them. Was the story relevant? Did the story connect you to the storyteller? Did the narrative include elements of a powerful story? For example, did the story exhibit a strong point of view or allow the audience to develop a “rooting interest”? Did the narrative have the classic three-act structure? Outline the story. Never write out the full story and read it. It is better to make some notes outlining the sequence of events. Don’t memorize the story as part of the presentation. You want the telling to seem natural, like you are at a cocktail party and sharing an experience with a small circle of friends. Remove the “fluff.” After you outline the story, examine the story with a very critical eye. Oftentimes, we love our stories so much that we include a lot of context and detail that make the story too long, get in the way of the conclusions or lessons, and/or simply bore the audience. You need to eliminate the fluff so the story is “tight” and leads to the conclusions desired. Practice in a safe environment. Try out your material in a comfortable and “safe” environment. Comedian Chris Rock practices his jokes and stories at dive bars. I practice stories in the car as I’m driving the freeways. Debrief your stories. After telling a story, always debrief the story so you can refine it. Ask yourself (or better yet a friend or colleague who heard the story) the following questions: What went well with the story? What did not go so well? How could I improve the story with the next telling? Start a story file. Once you become more aware of personal experiences that can turn into powerful stories, begin a paper or digital file and throw in any stories that can be used in internal and external presentations. In hunting for a relevant story, you first go to your story file. Your unit can create a file that contains your collective stories. Use stories at the beginning of staff meetings. To showcase stories and practice storytelling, make it a practice for someone at the beginning of each staff meeting to tell an informal story (i.e., share a work or personal experience that they or someone else had relevant to your endeavors). You can also invite internal or external customers or partners to join you at the beginning of a staff meeting and share their experiences with your services or joint efforts. Use a prop. A prop helps illustrate the story. The suggested bright pedestrian flag to illustrate a safety measure supports your story. Show “vulnerability.” If you want people in the audience to connect with you and “root” for you, show vulnerability. Share “my worst experience” or a fabulous flop. Most importantly, you must practice this skill. Like most behaviors, storytelling gets better the more you do it. How does one start? To get started in developing this capability, I suggest the following: Critique other leaders as they tell stories and try to influence others. Incorporate a personal experience or other story in your next presentation. Ensure that this first effort is in a fairly comfortable environment, such as your unit staff meeting. Get feedback from a trusted colleague after the meeting so you can tweak the story going forward. Try out the story or another story in your next formal presentation. Start a story file. Story-Telling as a Key Leadership Competency The ability to tell relevant and engaging stories will expand your leadership capacity and effectiveness. Stories will Help people connect with you. Help the audience retain your message and make it “sticky.” Persuade others. Inspire others to act with you.   Career Compass is a monthly column from ICMA focused on career issues for local government professional staff. Dr. Frank Benest is ICMA's liaison for Next Generation Initiatives and resides in Palo Alto, California. If you have a career question you would like addressed in a future Career Compass, e-mail careers@icma.org or contact Frank directly at frank@frankbenest.com. Read past columns at icma.org/careercompass.

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